A typical dashboard application consists of three process layers: 1) ETL, 2) Storage and Visualization and 3) Dashboard. The ETL layer extracts data from source systems such as other applications or systems, applies transformation logic, and inserts into a database. The Visualization layer optionally groups the data and converts the data into pictorial representations. A dashboard combines multiple visual reports in a single view to provide different perspectives of your operations or systems.
There are several open-source and commercial tools for each of these layers, each with different capabilities and limitations. The optimum tool is chosen based on customer requirement.